The Nobel prizes in science are probably the most famous scientific award in the world and have in the past been awarded to some of the most celebrated scientists in human history. Past winners include Ernest Rutherford (discovered atomic nucleus), Albert Einstein (quantum physics) and Sir Alexander Fleming (penicillin). You may not know the scientists that have been awarded them this year, but they really do join an elite company. As science progresses, the prizes are awarded for increasingly incremental gains in scientific knowledge and are very difficult to understand especially when it comes to their uses in today's world.
A wonderful website that I have used in the past Compound Interest creates colourful infographics which help explain some of these scientific concepts. Below are three which go someway to explain what the three newest members to the Nobel Prize winners did.